The symptom characteristics and causes of influenza encephalopathy (PART II)

Why does influenza encephalopathy emerge? Among the influenza encephalopathies, it is suspected that using aspirin is the factor that develops Reye encephalopathy. However, exact causes for the other influenza encephalopathies have not been identified. Anyway, since it emerges only when one suffers from infectious diseases by viruses like influenza, the best preventive measure of influenza encephalopathy is, most of all, to do the prevention to avoid catching flu. The number of influenza encephalopathy patients reported during one season For the season of 2017 ~2018, the reported patient number of influenza encephalopathy was 168 cases. 58% of it was under 10 years old. And the ratio of 5 years old under was 33% which was the smallest ratio for the last three seasons. Among elders over 60 years old, the influenza encephalopathy cases were also seen, accounting for 13% of all reported number. Features of influenza encephalopathy In many cases of influenza encephalopathy, the symptoms rapidly develop within several to 24 hours after the symptoms like high fever etc. of usual influenza. The major early symptoms are impaired consciousness, convulsions and abnormal behavior and speech. If these symptoms are seen, it is necessary to promptly take a medical examination at the […]

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The symptom characteristics and causes of influenza encephalopathy (PART I)

What is influenza encephalopathy? Influenza encephalopathy is a serious disease that affects the brain, after onset of influenza, developing impaired consciousness, convulsions, abnormal behavior and other symptoms. It primarily develops in infants under 5 years and is characterized by the rapid progression of impaired consciousness, etc. from its onset. There are also mild cases with good convalescence, but sometimes sequelae may remain and they may become mortal. Recently, adult cases of influenza encephalopathy have also been reported, it seems we can’t say it is limited to infants. Various influenza encephalopathies Influenza-associated encephalopathy is not exactly a single brain disease but a syndrome including plural diseases that develop impaired consciousness and etc. Find some of them below. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy This is a virus-induced, acute encephalopathy with diffuse brain edema accompanying both side symmetric thalamus lesions. It is characterized by that a lot of cases has been reported especially among the infants in South East Asia. The symptoms like rapid loss of consciousness and convulsions follow fever developed by the virus. The lesions are often observed onto cerebral side periventricular white matter, epithelial brainstem tegmentum and, the medulla, the internal capsule and the putamen of cerebellum. Reye syndrome This is an […]

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What are the effects of influenza to breast milk? (PART III)

Regarding influenza prevention methods/measures that breast-feeding mothers can use without concerns: Mothers who take care of infants are apt to become sleep-deprived from the lack of rest by the breast-feeding in the middle of night, baby crying at night and being driven by daily childcare and so on. It is regarded that mothers are easy to have infectious diseases due to the immune system falling from chronic fatigue, since milking also consumes energy. It is advised that, first of all, mothers should have vaccination before the flu season begins, because, as explained before, having vaccination during breast-feeding term has no harm, and it is also important to always take preventive measures. Because the infection route of influenza is mainly droplet infection, try to refrain from going out and avoid crowded places as possible as you can during the flu season. When you need to go out for errands of foods and groceries, avoid the crowded time and always wear a mask. Masks that can tightly fit the shape of the face are recommended. When you come home, throw out the used mask and make sure you always wash hands and gargle. Preparing alcohol-based hand sanitizer is very useful so that […]

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What are the effects of influenza to breast milk? (PART II)

Symptoms usually seen when infected and after infection: When being infected with influenza, breast milk may temporally become difficult to flow. One of the reasons is the decline of “oxytocin” secretion. “Oxytocin” is a hormone which has important roles for producing breast milk, but its secretion may be reduced if strong stress is given. When infected with influenza, hard symptoms like high fever, severe fatigue and joint pain, etc. continue for several days, and those symptoms become strong stress. As the result, function of hormone reduces and conditions for producing breast milk may become difficult. Because about 80% of breast milk consists of water, water loss caused by sweating from high fever may make breast milk difficult to produce. Well hydrating is very important, let’s keep it in mind. When breast milk becomes difficult to flow, one tends to try hard to milk and let baby drink. But trying hard makes mother’s body more tired and breast milk become even more difficult to flow, which results in causing a vicious circle. First of all, curing disease is the most important. Make them rest enough and drink water well. Effect on breast milk of anti-influenza medicine The suitable anti-influenza medicines which […]

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What are the effects of influenza to breast milk? (PART I)

In case that a breast-feeding mother is diagnosed as influenza: The influenza vaccine currently used in Japan is an inactivated vaccine which has no pathogenicity. The vaccination creates the antibodies in blood, but because there is no virus multiplication in the body so the probability of vaccination causing diseases is extremely low, it is thought that there must be no effects to babies through breast milk. However, for having infant moms, feeding and taking care of them in the middle of the night, are apt to lose sleep, and they become susceptible to infection due to the immune system falling from fatigue. Influenza vaccination is not allowed for one month post-partum because of the loss of strength from childbirth, but if no problems are found in the one month post-partum check-ups, we recommend having influenza vaccination. It takes two to three months from vaccination for antibodies to be generated in blood. To acquire the immunity before the flu season begins, let’s have vaccinations in advance considering its effect creating time. What kind of doctor you shall consult: If you suspect flu from the symptoms like over 38 degrees high fever, severe fatigue and/or joint pain, consult a physician, not the […]

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Pathogen: With parasite

A parasite is an organism that mounts (parasitizes) on the surface or body of humans and animals to make food their own. The host is a person or animal being infested, and the parasite can not live without the host. And, parasites can cause harm to the host, and this infection is called “parasitic disease.” In Japan after World War II, many people (around 60% were infected with roundworms and around 5% were infected with worms) were infected with parasites. Since then, the introduction of chemical fertilizers in agriculture, hygienic living conditions such as maintenance of sewers and the spread of flush toilets, and measures such as testing and anthelmintics have resulted in very few infected people. Now it also has an increasing number of people who do not know the parasites. Recently, parasitic diseases are said to have increased due to the intake of raw food, imported foods and natural foods due to the gourmet boom, the increase in overseas travel, the pet boom, and the increase in imports from overseas. Classification of parasites There are about 200 species of parasites in the world and about 100 species in Japan, and these parasites are classified into two: protozoa and […]

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Sanitation management that can be done on a daily basis

As a basic measure against infections, it is important to keep your surroundings clean and not to reduce your immune system. Our bodies use the immune system to protect against infections and cure symptoms against pathogens that cause infections. Taking a well-balanced diet, developing a basic fitness, and having a regular life are the basics of hygiene management. Because infection causes different pathogens and infection routes, preventive measures for each infection are different. I have listed some measures that can be taken daily, so please refer to hygiene management. To maintain immunity Let’s take enough sleep. Let’s take a balanced diet. Let’s do moderate exercise. Have a regular life as much as possible. Let’s sometimes relieve stress. To prevent infection of influenza and cold at the time of returning home Let’s try to wash hands and gargle. Let the ventilation of the room. The virus is stable at low temperatures and in a dry state. To adjust the humidity and temperature, let’s create a habitat difficult environment of the virus. Antivirus Immunization is an effective means of preventing infections. Vaccination, please go in consultation with a doctor (family doctor). The virus spreads by coughing and sneezing. Wear a mask to […]

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Infectious Diseases Measures in Japan–Infectious Diseases Law–

In order to respond to severe changes in the situation surrounding infectious diseases, the Infectious Diseases Act (formal name: Law Concerning Prevention of Infectious Diseases and Medical Care for Patients with Infectious Diseases) was implemented from April 1, 1999 instead of the Infectious Diseases Prevention Act so far, and measures to prevent infectious diseases and measures to harmonize the patient’s human rights have been taken. The Infectious Diseases Act was revised on October 16, 2003 (enforced on November 5, 2003) and also revised from April 1, 2007, and integrated with the Tuberculosis Prevention Act in order to respond to changes in the environments surrounding health and medical care, as people and supplies move rapidly and actively as infectious diseases occur abroad, such as SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), which has spread worldwide between November and early July 2002. In preparation for the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) and the outbreak of pandemic influenza, it was revised on May 2, 2008 (enforced on May 12). The Infectious Diseases Act classifies infectious diseases First to fifth classes, five categories, designated infectious diseases, and seven categories based on the severity of symptoms and the infectivity of pathogens. In addition, the revision […]

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Pandemic of humanity-threatening infectious diseases

Humans have been fighting various infectious diseases for a long time a century ago. In an era when neither cause nor treatment was well established, infectious disease pandemics have had a changing impact on history. The number of deaths from infectious diseases has declined dramatically since the late nineteenth century, when the pathogens and ways of dealing with infectious diseases have been known. However, since around 1970, emerging infectious diseases, which have not been known before, and re-emerging infectious diseases, which have recurred despite a temporary decrease in the number of outbreaks of infectious diseases that have spread in the past, have become a problem. It is a threat not only in developing countries but also in developed countries. Infaction Ere Threet smallpox The only infectious disease that humanity has eradicated A century ago: Smallpox traces in Egypt mummies The Sixth Century: Smallpox Epidemics in Japan, and Periodic Epidemics Later 15th century: continental epidemic in the Americas due to the new continental surface of Colombus 1980: WHO Declaration of Global Eradication of Smallpox Decrease in population from 80 million to 10 million in 50 years Plague Around 540: Spread in Vizantium (Constantino Blue), a Central Europe City It is estimated that up to […]

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What is an infectious disease?

Infectious diseases are caused by the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms in the environment (including the air, water, soil, and animals) into the human body. Many invisible microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi (molds, yeasts, etc.) are present around us. Among them, the microorganisms that cause infectious diseases are called pathogens. Also, parasitic diseases caused by parasites such as ascaris and pinworms are one of the infectious diseases. In addition, parasitic disease caused by parasites such as roundworm and helminth is one of the infectious diseases Infection is caused by the invasion, establishment, and multiplication of pathogens in the human body. Infection may cause symptoms (overt infection) or may not cause obvious symptoms (subclinical infection). Latently infected people are often problematic because they are unknowingly carriers (carriers) who shed the pathogen and are likely to spread the infection as a source of infection. It is important to know where (source) and how (path) invisible pathogens and parasites invade. [On the Source of Infection]. People (infected individuals), animals, and insects infected with pathogens, and foods and foods contaminated with pathogens are sources of infection. These include foods and foods touched by carriers and infection animals, such as bodily waste, vomitus, blood, and body fluids […]

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