MASA

About MASA MRSA is an acronym for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). Staphylococcus aureus is a very common fungus and adheres well to our hair, skin, nasal mucosa, mouth, and wounds. However, S. aureus is basically an attenuated bacterium, so if our resistance is strong, it will not be particularly severe.  MRSA is a fellow of the Staphylococcus aureus, nature is am with Staphylococcus aureus, has a resistance gene, antibiotics (drugs that kill the bacteria) is making it difficult effectiveness. Therefore, it does not proceed to treatment think, we often only resistance force of the patient is to rely on. When it gets worse, there are many cases of death due to sepsis, meningitis, endocarditis and osteomyelitis. severe easy to state If the resistance drops enough to require a clean room After major surgery In case of severe burns If you are putting a long period of time the catheter into a blood vessel In such cases, MRSA infections are very susceptible to a variety of illnesses and are difficult to treat, so there is a great risk of MRSA. However, it is unlikely that actual harm will occur because of MRSA, as few people living in households and […]

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hand-foot-and-mouth disease 2

How do you get infected? Droplet infections: Many infections are caused by sneezing or coughing. contagious infection:Virus gets into mucous membranes such as the mouth and eyes and gets infected through the hand that touched the blister or touched the stool when changing diapers. It may also be infected by touching toys that have a virus attached. Even if the symptoms go away, the virus still gets excreted in the stool, which can be a source of infection for two to four weeks. Point of preventive measures of hand foot and mouth disease First of all, hand wash When hand-foot-and-mouth disease occurs in a childcare facility or kindergarten etc., group infections are likely to occur. There is no effective vaccine, so it’s important to have a habit of washing your hands well on a regular basis. Wash your hands thoroughly with running water and soap, and share a common towel. You can expect further effects by using alcohol hand antiseptic after hand washing. Moderate diaper changing After changing diapers, wash your hands thoroughly regardless of your child’s symptoms. It is possible that the virus may have been excreted in the stool for 2 to 4 weeks if symptoms have disappeared, […]

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Hand-foot-and-mouth disease 1

What is hand foot and mouth disease? Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is an acute viral infection that causes blisters in the hands, feet, and mouth, and is prevalent mainly in summer, especially in children under the age of five. It is designated as 5 class infectious disease by law about infectious disease. Pathogens are viruses derived from the human intestinal tract, and mainly include Coxsackie virus A6, A16, and Enterovirus 71. The types of epidemic vary from year to year. Features and main symptoms of the epidemic If you suffer from hand-foot-and-mouth disease, 2-3 days of blistering (blebbing-like swelling) will appear on the mucous membranes in the mouth, palms, soles and soles, etc. after a 3- to 5-day incubation period. About 30% of children have fever, but high fever is said to be less frequent. Usually, the marks of Minamata do not become scabs, but they will improve in 3 to 7 days. In rare cases, complications such as meningitis, cerebellar ataxia, encephalitis, etc. may be caused and aggravated.   Hand-foot-and-mouth disease caused by Coxsackie virus type A6 is characterized by large blisters, and it may appear in the thighs and buttocks. It is not uncommon for fever to exceed 39 ° […]

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About Ebola hemorrhagic fever

Pathogen Ebola virus (Phylovirus family) Route of infection Infection is caused mainly by contact with the patient’s body fluids (blood, secretions, vomitus, and excreta). Contact with the blood, secretions, excreta, and saliva of infected monkeys and other animals can also be acquired. Entry into caves in endemic areas is one of the risks of infection because of the risk of contact with infected bats. Latent period 2-21 days (average of approximately one week) Diagnosis and treatment Clinical symptoms The onset is sudden.Symptoms include fever, malaise, loss of appetite, and headache. It is followed by gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. In severe cases, neurologic symptoms, hemorrhagic symptoms, and hypotension are observed, leading to death. Mortality rates vary by virus but are reported to be 80-90% high. Sequelae may include arthralgia, vision loss, and hearing loss. Diagnosis Detection of pathogens, pathogens, antigens or genes from blood, throat swab, and urine, detection of antibodies from serum Treatment Symptomatic therapy Prevention Avoid traveling to endemic areas. Do not touch wildlife or patients directly. Don’t enter the cave.

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About influenza prevention(PART III)

Is it all right not to go to hospital? Going to hospital, can infection occur more easily? Without going to hospital, doing treatment in one’s own way is NG. When influenza is suspected, even the symptoms not being so severe, you had better visit a hospital. There are cases that it gets spontaneously cured by resting in bed at home, but it is very dangerous to make one’s own judgements. Even if it is thought not so severe, there are potentialities of increasing in severity afterwards, and also it may possibly lead to falling into a very grave status without noticing the development of some complications. And if the disease is not properly taken care of, as the result, there is also the high risk for infection spread at home, schools and offices. You must visit a hospital to protect your own health, of course, but also surrounding people’s health. Need to see a doctor as well, in case you have some symptoms without any fever When infected with influenza, from whatever reasons like one’s constitution, age, having or not vaccination, type of influenza and etc., some cases may not appear having any high fever. Because there is no relation between […]

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About influenza prevention(PART II)

Contents of test and treatment methods Currently prevailing test is to use “Quick antigen detection test kit”. Inserting swabs into the nose and back of the throat to scrape off nasal discharge and mucous membrane, dropping into the test kit to find out the presence of influenza viruses, thereafter whether infected or not is established. If influenza is diagnosed, medical treatment is given depending on the symptoms, ages and etc. of the patient. If it is within 48 hours from onset, administration of anti-influenza medicine is to be done to prevent symptoms from getting worse by controlling the multiplication of viruses. As to anti-influenza medicine, there are capsule type of “Tamiflu”, powder inhalant type of “Lyrenza” and “Inaville”, and also for elders and children, for whom oral dosing is difficult, “Rapiacta”, etc. of intravenous drip infusion type. But, because the conditions for capable medical institutions are limited and regulated, if necessary, the search of a capable hospital should be done beforehand.   Treatments for relief of symptoms are also available even when anti-influenza medicine is not effective after 48 hours from onset and so on. Also available are antipyretics and analgesics for a high fever, antitussive drug for painful coughing […]

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About influenza prevention(PART I)

If you worry about having flu, let’s check initial symptoms. In case influenza is suspected, first of all, let’s check about what kind of symptoms is seen. The typical early symptoms are listed below: High fever of over 38 degrees Strong fatigue and/or chill Muscle pain, joint pain Severe headache If these symptoms are rapidly appearing, the influenza infection should be highly suspected. In case of having had vaccination, some cases may only have light symptoms so that people may mistake it for a cold. But, in case of a cold, symptoms develop slowly, and get complicated with runny nose or nasal congestion and throat pain etc. When you notice initial symptoms above during influenza seasons, strongly suspect influenza and take appropriate actions such as avoiding unnecessary outings and visiting a hospital and so on. When is the timing for visiting a hospital? When influenza is suspected, the most appropriate timing of visiting a hospital is between 12 hours through 48 hours after from the initial symptoms. There are two big reasons for it. One is for to make an accurate testing for diagnosis. “Quick antigen detection test kit” is usually used for influenza testing, but if the number of […]

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There are cases of influenza that only have a slight fever, why? (PART II)

Determine influenza by other factors rather than fever! In fact, there are many cases of influenza having a slight fever only, people tend to not pay attention and lose the timing of visiting a hospital. Because most of the medicines of influenza are to be administered at the early stage of its onset in order to have enough effectiveness, it is important to visit a hospital and get the check-ups as early as possible. When there are symptoms of severe head-ache, severe chills, joint pains etc. other than a fever, you should suspect influenza and visit a hospital at once. And also in the cases where many influenza patients are seen in school or office, or a family member becomes infected with influenza, even if the symptoms other than a fever are light, for the possibility of influenza is very high, you must visit a hospital.  In general, it is known that the high fever term of influenza is about 5days, but if the fever continues longer than that there are possibilities of having disease complication. In the typical symptom of influenza, the rapid rising of the high fever over 38 degrees comes first and it peeks out at around […]

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There are cases of influenza that only have a slight fever, why? (PART I)

Having a high fever doesn’t equal to influenza! Many people have some knowledge of influenza that happens every year, because a lot of information on preventive methods, treatment methods and etc. are made available. However people are very often mistaken about the relation between influenza and having a fever. Although the image that influenza must accompany a rapid fever rise is prevailing, it isn’t necessarily correct that “without a high fever, it is not influenza”. Among the patients with a slight fever on the 37 degrees level or the 36 degrees that is about the same level as normal temperature, many cases of confirmed influenza have been reported every year. To the contrary, there seem to be cases that, even though having a high fever, they can’t be influenza but the other diseases like a cold. There are also wrong understandings that having vaccination one will never get infected with influenza as well as the wrong perceptions, many people have, of “influenza should always accompany a high fever”. Vaccination is to expect the effects of making immune system strong. It is to induce the antibodies multiplication by injecting into body viruses whose toxicity is removed. However, because antibodies multiplication varies […]

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The symptom characteristics and causes of influenza encephalopathy (PART III)

Treatment methods of influenza encephalopathy It is said that it is necessary to start its treatment before the diagnosis is established, because influenza encephalopathy progresses very rapidly. In case of encephalopathy, it is the principle to hospitalize the patient because it need make it possible to quickly treat the patient according to symptom changes. And as to treatment methods, the support therapy is basically applied, which can keep the whole body situation by controlling respiratory and circulatory, in addition to that, the specific treatments like antivirus medicine and high dose administration of gamma-globulin are also to be adopted. If the expected result could not be achieved even by giving those therapies, special treatments such as brain hypothermia therapy and plasma exchange therapy would be used, but because their working examples are very few, as well as problems of the high cost and the side-effects, these special treatments are deemed as very limitedly applicable. Regarding the prevention of influenza encephalopathy Although influenza encephalopathy is a very serious disease, its effective method of prevention is not yet found out. So, even for now, the best prevention method for it is to prevent influenza infection itself. From the influenza vaccination, the effects of making […]

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